The Teachers of Imam Khomeini
Translated by: Sayyid Ali Shahbaz
In the Name of Allah
I started my education in Khumayn in the maktab of the late Mulla Abu al-Qasim and learned the preliminary lessons from the late Aqa Shaykh Ja‘far and the late Mirza Mahmud (Iftikhar al-‘Ulama). Then I took up the study of elementary Islamic sciences under Mirza Muhammad Mahdi (maternal uncle) and logic under Aqa Najafi Khumayni. Later, His Eminence (elder brother Ayatullah Sayyid Murtada Pasandidah) taught me Suyuti (Jalal al-Din Suyutis book of Arabic grammar), the commentary on Bab Hadi Ashar, dialectics and part of axiomatic postulates. In Arak, where I went for (higher) studies in 1339 AH (1920 CE) I studied mutuwal (postulate) under the late Shaykh Muhammad Ali Burujirdi, dialectics under the late Shaykh Muhammad Gulpayegani and the Sharh al-Lumah under the late ‘Abbas Araki.
After immigrating to Qum in the wake of the migration there of the late Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi (Gods mercy be upon him) who settled in that holy city in the year 1340 AH on the Day of Nowruz 1300 solar AH (1921 CE), I completed axioms and postulation under the late Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Adib Tehrani, part of sutuh under the late Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, and most of sutuh under the late Mirza Sayyid ‘Ali Yathribi Kashani, along with whom I also attended the kharij (post-doctoral level) course taught by the late Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abd al- Karim Hairi. Most of the kharij course I completed under him. I also studied philosophy under Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Qazwini and mathematics (including arithmetic and astronomy) under the late Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Shahabadi.
After the passing away of Ayatullah Hairi, I engaged in discourses with a few of my friends till Ayatullah ‘Abd al-Husayn Burujirdi (Gods mercy be upon him) came to Qum, and I attended his classes in order to popularize him and to benefit from his knowledge...
1.Mirza Muhammad Mahdi Khumayni
Thus, as is clear, the first teacher of religious studies of the late Imam Khumayni was his maternal uncle Hajj Mirza Muhammad Mahdi Khumayni. About this teacher we only know that he was the son of Mirza Ahmad Mujtahid —the father of Imam Khumaynis mother Hajar Khanum— who was originally from Khwansar and was settled in Khumayn. Unfortunately, at present there is not much information about father and son. Hujjat al-Islam Ahmadi Khumayni who is considered a relative of the late Imam Khumayni is most probably the grandson of Mirza Ahmad.
2. Aqa Najafi Khumayni
There is no information about him.
3. Ayatullah Hajj Sayyid Murtada Pasandidah
He was the elder brother of Imam Khumayni and was born in 1313 AH in Khumayn where he learned the basic sciences from his teachers. In 1327 he left for Isfahan to study literature, logic, kalam, fiqh, usul, astronomy and astrology under such teachers as Aqa Rahim Arbab, Aqa Shaykh ‘Ali Yazdi,3 Aqa Tuysirkani 4 Ayatullah Mir Muhammad Sadiq Khatunabadi and Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Ali Najafabadi. He returned to Khumayn and organized seminary studies and his younger brother Imam Khumayni was among his students.5
4 & 5. Shaykh Muhammad Gulpayegani & Shaykh
Muhammad ‘Ali Burujirdi
We do not have information on these two learned scholars.
6. Aqa ‘Abbas Araki
Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abbas Idrisabadi Araki was a teacher at the Aqa Zia al-Din Theological School (madrasah) of Arak. According to a contemporary writer, Dehgan by name, there is not a scholar in Arak who has not studied under Shaykh ‘Abbas. The late Grand Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad ‘Ali Araki was one of his students.
7. Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Adib Tehrani (1320-1369 AH)
According to Athar al-Hujjah, Hujjat al-Islam Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Adib, the son of Mirza Muhammad Taqi Hakim- Bashi was one of the great scholars and teachers of sutuh and literature at the hawzah (religious academy), who possessed outstanding qualities. At the age of 20 he studied literature under Aqa Mirza Kuchak and Aqa Shaykh Buzurg Saviji — two of the leading scholars of Tehran — and later studied under Shaykh ‘Abd al-Husayn Rashti. At Arak and Qum, he benefited from the classes of Grand Ayatullah Hairi.
He acquired the epithet of Adib because of his mastery over literature. The author of Ayeneh-ye Danishwaran writes that Adib was among the teachers of usul and fiqh at the hawzah. He is the author of the book Sarf al-Sarf on grammar and Hashiyah Bar Mughni al-Labib of Ibn Hisham, None of the two books have been printed. One of the earlier prints of Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummis famous prayer and supplication manual Mafafih al-Jinan was edited by Adib, a fact which bears testimony to his literary genius. The grave of this great teacher is in the Hajj Shaykh Cemetery of Qum.
8. Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khawansari (1305-1371)
He studied in holy Najaf under such great scholars as Akhund Khurasani (author of Kifayah al-Usul), Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi (author of al-Urvah al-Wutqa), Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani, Aqa Zia al-Din Iraqi, Mirza Muhammad Husayn Naini (author of Tanbih al-Ummah wa Tanzih al-Millah) and Shaykh ‘Ali Quchani. He came to Qum in the year the hawzah was established and was one of its prominent teachers.
Imam Khumayni studied part of jurisprudence under him. Among the works written by Sayyid Taqi Khwansari we can mention al-Hashiyah fi al-Urvah al-Wutqa in Arabic and the Manual of Islamic Laws (Risalah-yi Amaliyyah) in Persian. Part of his lectures on the discourse of Kitab al-Taharah was published by the late Ayatullah Muhammad ‘Ali Araki.7
In the aftermath of the First World War when the Iraqi people rose against the British colonialists under the leadership of ‘ulama and maraji‘ (pi. of marja‘ or religious authority who is considered as source of reference and emulation by the common people), Ayatullah Khwansari along with Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi and Sayyid Musfafa Kashani, was actively engaged in the fighting. Throughout his life he remained a staunch opponent of the deceptive slogan that religion and politics are separate.
Imam Khumayni was very much attached to this great scholar and at times would recall his greatness. Once the late Imam remarked:
He was the religious scholar who went to the war fronts in Iraq, fought and was taken prisoner. The late Sayyid Taqi Khwansari was held prisoner (by the British) for quite a long time.
His grave is adjacent to that of Ayatullah ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi in the holy mausoleum of Hadrat Ma‘sumah in Qum.
9. Ayatullah Aqa Mirza Sayyid ‘Ali Yathribi Kashani (1311-1379 AH)
He was a student of Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani, Aqa Zia al-Din Iraqi and Mirza Muhammad Husayn Naini. In 1341 AH on the invitation of Ayatullah Hairi he came to Qum where he taught at the hawzah till 1347 AH, before settling down in his hometown Kashan. His tomb on the other side of the Mashhad in Kashan is frequently visited by the people.
Imam Khumayni studied fiqh and usul under Ayatullah Aqa Mirza Sayyid ‘Ali Yathribi Kashani, and after 1345 AH, both teacher and student started attending the senior classes of Ayatullah Hairi. Except for his Hashiyah (glosses) on al-‘Urvah al-Wuthqa and some portions of the principles of jurisprudence, no other work is known to have survived from Ayatullah Yathribi Kashani.
10. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii Qazwini (1312 or 1315/1396 AH)
This great scholar was a student of Sayyid Muhammad Tonekaboni (author Hashiyah Rasail) and Hakim Mirza Hasan Kermanshahi. He came to the hawzah of Qum in 1340 AH and till 1349 when he returned to his hometown Qazwin, he attended the classes of Ayatullah Hari. During his 9-year stay in Qum, Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii Qazwmi used to teach the Makasib and Rasa il of Shaykh Murtada Ansari, the Kifayat al- Usul of Akhund Khurasani, the al-Asfar al-Arbaah of Mulla Sadra and the Sharh Manzumah (Commentary on the Philosophical Poem) of Mulla Hadi Sabzewari. Imam Khumayni was among his students.
Among his works could be cited the Risalah-yi Ra‘jat, Risalah-yi Miraj, Risalah-yi M‘aad, Risalah-yi Ittihad Aqil va Ma‘qul, Risalah-yi Radd bar Wahhabiyyat and Sharh Du‘a-yi Sahar. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii lies buried in the hall adjacent to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘suma (A.S.).
11. Ayatullah Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami Yazdi (d. 1344)
This philosopher was a student of Jahangir Khan Qashqai and Aqa Muhammad Rida Qumshahi. For years he taught at the madrasah of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Husayn in Tehran, where among his students mention could be made of Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani. In 1340 AH he came to Qum to teach mathematics, astronomy and such philosophical works as Asfar, Sharh Manzumah and Sharh Fusus al-Hikam of Dawud ibn Muhammad al-Rumi al-Qaysari (commentary on the Spanish Gnostic Muhyi al-Din ibn Arabs famous work).
Among the printed works of Ayatullah Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami Yazdi, mention could be made of Rasail Hikmiyyah which contains short treatises on Quiddity and Existence, Self- Recognition, and Awareness of God. Another of his works is a collection of treatises on kalami, philosophical and anthropological issues.
Imam Khumayni in his exegesis on the Surah al-Hamd, says:
When I came to Qum (in 1340 AH), the late Aqa Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami, may God have mercy upon him, was in Qum at the time the hawzah was established. Scholars used to go there for studies. The late Aqa Khwansari (Sayyid Muhammad Taqi), the late Aqa Ishraqi (Mirza Muhammad Taqi) and Aqa Sayyid Ahmad Taqi Khwansari went there to study under Mirza ‘Ali Akbar.
The late Aqa Kamarehi writes: After the passing away of our teacher Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami, I used to hold discourses with Ayatullah Khumayni on the Ilahiyyat (theology) of Asfar. Ayatullah Hakami Yazdi died in 1344 AH and was buried in the Shaykhan Cemetery of Qum.
12. Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi (1276-1355)
This great teacher had studied in Najaf under the martyr Shaykh Fadlullah Nuri, the renowned Ayatullah Mirza Hasan Shirazi, Akhund Khurasani, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi and Sayyid Muhammad Fisharaki. He returned to Iran in 1333 AH and lookup teaching at Araks modest theological school. In 1340 AH he went to Qum for pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.), and upon the request of the ‘ulama and elders of that city, he decided to stay there. Some of the students and scholars who attended his classes in Arak, followed their teacher to Qum and thus was established the great hawzah which is today the centre of learning for world Muslims, especially the Shiites.
Imam Khumayni also moved to Qum from Arak in 1340 AH and after studying philosophy, advanced fiqh and usul, started attending the classes of Ayatullah Hairi in 1345 and was a regular student till the death of this illustrious teacher in 1355. Imam Khumayni used to recall with profound respect the memory of his great teacher.
Ayatullah Hairi was laid to rest in the hall adjacent to the shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.). The works written by him are Kitab al-Salat, Durar al-Fawaid and the Hashiyah on al-‘Urwah al-Wuthqa, as well as the Manual of Islamic Laws. His lectures and discourses on jurisprudence and usul have been compiled by some of his students and published in book form.
13. Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Shahabadi (1292/1369 AH)
This great philosopher and Gnostic had studied under Mirza Hashim Khwansari (author of Mabani al-Usul), Mirza Hasan Ashtiyani (author of Hashiyah al-Rasail), the philosopher Mirza Hashim Gilani, the Gnostic Mirza Abu al-Hasan Jilwah, Akhund Khurasani, Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani and Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. He came to Qum in 1347 AH and for the next seven years taught at the hawzah until his migration to Tehran in 1354 AH. During this period, Imam Khumayni benefited most from the knowledge of Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Shahabadi and studied Fusus al-Hikam, Mafatih al-Ghayb, and Manazil al-Sairin under him. Imam Khumayni had great respect for this teacher and has spoken highly of him in his speeches and in his works such as Misbah al-Hidayah, Araba‘in Hadith, Ta‘liqah ‘Ala Sharh Fusus al-Hikam, and Ta‘liqah ‘Ala Sharh Misbah al-Uns.
Ayatullah Shahabadi was a prolific writer and his works include Rashahaat al-Bihar — a work greatly valued by Imam Khumayni — Shadhrat al-Ma‘arif and the Manual of Islamic Laws titled Miftah al-Sa‘adah. He was a staunch opponent of the Pahlavi dictator Reza Khan and his oppressive and ungodly officials. His biography vividly describes his struggle against oppression. He was laid to rest in Rayy near the grave of the 6th century exegete of the Holy Quran Abu al-Futuh Razi, between the holy shrines of Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim al-Hasani (A.S.) and Hamzah ibn Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.).
14. Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani Masjid-Shahi (1287-1362 AH)
This great scholar stayed in Qum for only a year and a half, arriving in 1344 AH when the scholars and religions teachers of Isfahan were shifting to the holy city. However, during this brief period of stay of Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani, many of the ‘ulama and teachers of the hawzah, including Imam Khumayni benefited from his knowledge of jurisprudence and usul Imam Khumayni and some of his colleagues regularly studied under him the Critique of Darwins Theory of Evolution.
Imam Khumayni had profound memories of Ayatullah Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani and his classes of fiqh and usul. In his book Makasib Muharramah (Prohibited Professions), the late Imam has quoted extensively from his teachers Risalah Rawdat al-Ghina‘ which he considers the best work on the critique of music. He has also quoted this respected teacher as authority in his discourse on the terminology of the principles of jurisprudence concerning the sanctioned or lawful things.
Ayatullah Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani, who authored some 30 books, was among the teachers who authorized Imam Khumayni to relate hadith as the latter has mentioned in his book Arbain or collection of Forty Hadith. Among his books is Wiqayat al-Adhhan, Naqd-i Falsafah Darwin and Amjadiyyah, all three of which have been printed. He was also an expert in Arabic literature, and his diwan or collection of poetry, which has recently been published, is an undeniable proof in this regard. He was buried in the Takht-i Fulad Cemetery of Isfahan in the family graveyard.
15. Grand Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abd al-Husayn Burujirdi (1292-13 80 AH)
This great religious authority (marja‘), after initial studies in the hawzah of Isfahan under Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Durchihi and Jahangir Khan Qashqai, left for the holy city of Najaf where he benefited from the classes of Akhund Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi and Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani. In 1328 AH, he returned to his hometown Burujird, where for the next 35 years he was engrossed in research and publication of books.
In 1364 AH, Grand Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abd al-Husayn Burujirdi went to Tehran for medical treatment, after which on the request of the prominent ‘ulama of Qum, including Imam Khumayni, he accepted the charge of the hawzah and settled in this holy city. Some of his works which have been published are: Hashiyah on al-‘Urvah al-Wuthqa, Manual of Islamic Laws, and a brief biography of his family.
Imam Khumayni who was 45 years at the time of Ayatullah Burujirdis arrival in Qum, regularly attended his classes, which according to some ‘ulama, was out of respect for the eminent position of this great jurisprudent of the School of Ahl al-Bayt. The modesty and sincerity of Imam Khumayni can be gauged from what Ayatullah Pasandidah has quoted from his younger brother:
After the passing away of Ayatullah Hairi, Ayatullah Burujirdi came to Qum, and Hadrat Imam (Khumayni) who had already achieved a very prominent position in terms of knowledge, attended his classes in order to promote and popularize him. He would say: I have benefited a lot from his classes.
One of the books written by Imam Khumayni is a collection of discourses of Ayatullah Burujirdi. This great scholar of Islam who had a worldwide following as Marja‘ Taqlid for Shiite Muslims, passed away in 1380 and was laid to rest at a spot between the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.) and Masjid A‘zam.
16. Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabrizi (d. 1343 AH)
He was a product of the hawzah of the holy city of Najaf, and studied fiqh under Aqa Reza Hamedani (author of Misbah al-faqih), usul under Akhund Khurasani, and ethics and rules of demeanor under Mulla Husayn Quli Hamedani (d. 1311 AH). Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki-Tabrizi returned to Iran in 1321 AH and after spending some years in his hometown Tabriz, settled down in the holy city of Qum in 1329 AH. He authored several books including Asrar al-Salah, al-Muraqabat, Liqa‘ Allah and Hashiyah Ghayat al-Quswa which is a translation of al-‘Urvah al-Wuthqa. The first three books have been printed and the manuscript of the fourth is in the possession of the writer of this article.
When the hawzah was established in Qum in 1343 AH, Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabrizi became one of its prominent teachers. He mainly taught ethics and his classes were attended by many scholars. He used to hold two separate classes on ethics; one was an open session at Madrasah Faydiyyah for all students and the other was a special discourse on ethics at his home for scholars, which was regularly attended by Imam Khumayni.
The late Imam has quoted in his works from this teacher, and in the book Sirr al-Salah has recommended the reading of his works, saying:
Among the contemporary ‘ulama I suggest the study of the books of the eminent Shaykh and Gnostic Hajj Mirza Jawad Tabrizi (may his soul be sanctified).12
The grave of Ayatullah Maliki-Tabrizi in the Shaykhan Cemetery of Qum,, is frequently visited by the ‘ulama.
17. Ayatullah Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili (1285-1371 AH)
The author of the renown biographical encyclopedia, Ayan al-Shi‘ah, was among the ‘ulama from whom Imam Khumayni received the authorization to relate hadith. He writes in Arba‘in:
I received both written and oral authorization (to relate hadith) from some of the most prominent and trustworthy ‘ulama, including the Master of Authority, the Scholastic Jurisprudent, the Trustworthy Personality, ‘Allamah Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili.
Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin who lived most of his life in Damascus, rests in peace in the courtyard of the holy mausoluern of the Prophets grand daughter Hadrat Zaynab (A.S.).
18. Ayatullah Muhaddith Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi (1294-1359 AH)
This great hadith researcher also gave his authorization to Imam Khumayni to relate hadith, as mentioned in Arba‘in.
And among them is the Great and Reliable Shaykh, the Trustworthy Scholar, Hajj Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi.
Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi who was a meticulous researcher and prolific writer, is the author of several outstanding books including Safinat al-Bihar wa Madinat al-Hikam-wa al-Athar (a much valued 8-volume glossary on ‘Allamah Majlisis magnum opus Bihar al- Anwar) and the widely read manual of prayers and supplications Mafatih al-Jinan. He died in Najaf and was buried in one of the aivans of the courtyard of the holy shrine of Amir al-Muminin Imam ‘Ali (A.S.), beside the grave of his equally famous teacher Ayatullah Mirza Husayn Tabrisi Nuri.
19. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Qasim Dehkurdi Isfahani(1272-1353 AH)
He also granted Imam Khumayni the authorization to relate hadith as is mentioned in Arba‘in. Sayyid Muslih al-Din Mahdawi writing about Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abu al-Qasim Dehkurdi Isfahani, says:
This faqih and usuli mujtahid, was one of the prominent scholars and teachers of the hawzah of Isfahan. He had studied in Samarra‘ under Ayatullah Mirza Hasan Shirazi and in Najaf under Shaykh Zayn al-‘Abidin Mazandarani and Mirza Husayn Tabrisi Nuri.
He used to teach at Madrasah Sadr of Isfahan and was a source of reference and authority for the people of the city. Sixteen books are known to have been written by him including Hashiyah Bar Jami ‘Abbasi, Hashiyah Bar Nukhbah Hajj Kalbasi and the Manual of Islamic Laws. Ayatullah Dehkurdi who died in 1353 AH was laid to rest in the courtyard of Zaynabiyyah Mausoleum of Isfahan.
Imam Khumayni in the beginning of his Arba‘in, after mentioning the names of the four ‘ulama including Ayatullah Dehkurdi from whom he had the authorization to narrate hadith (the other three being Shaykh Muhammad Reza Masjid-Shahi, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-‘Amili and Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi), writes:
The chain of authority of these four notables reaches Shaykh Murtada Ansari, and we have other chains also which do not end with Shaykh Ansari. But here we have not mentioned those other chains.
The writer of this article, at present, does not have information on the other sources of authority who gave permission to Imam Khumayni.
20. Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Bafqi Yazdi (1292-1365 AH)
This pious and combatant scholar had studied fiqh at the hawzah in Najaf under Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, ethics under Sayyid Ahmad Karbalai (student of Mulla Husayn Quli Hamedani) and hadith under Sayyid Hasan Sadr. In 1337 AH he returned to Iran and settled in Qum. When Ayatullah ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi visited Qum for pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.), Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Bafqi Yazdi was among the scholars who requested him to stay in the holy city and reorganize the mode of teaching. After establishment of the hawzah in Qum, he became a strong support for Ayatullah Hairi in administering the educational affairs.
In 1346 AH, Ayatullah Bafqi Yazdi because of his enjoining of good and forbidding of evil and his public protest to the irreligious policies of Reza Khan, was insulted and beaten personally by the Pahlavi dictator in the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah. He was subsequently jailed in Tehran and was later interned in the Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim (a) sanctuary in Rayy, where he spent 19 years. Imam Khumayni had great respect for this combatant ‘alim because of his piety and indomitable spirit. Aqa Radi in his book al-Taqwa wa ma Adraka ma al-Taqwa, writes:
Imam Khumayni in his lessons on ethics while teaching at Madrasah Faydiyyah would often remark: These days anyone wishing to visit a staunch believer who has subjugated the devils and reformed them, should travel to the city of Rayy and after performing the pilgrimage to the shrine of Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim ( ‘a) should meet Aqa Bafqi. And he (Imam Khumayni) used to recite the following couplet:
What a wonder that a single miracle would accomplish two tasks, The pilgrimage of Shah ‘Abd al-‘Azim and meeting with the beloved.
Ayatullah Bafqi Yazdi later returned to Qum where he died in 1465 AH and was buried in the mausoleum of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (a). Unfortunately, the tombstone of this great ‘alim has been removed, and I request the authorities of the holy shrine to reinstate it, so that his memory would be kept alive by the visitors. 13
1. Hudur Magazine, vol. 10, p.5
2. This is how Imam Khumayni has described his maternal uncle, Hudur, vol. I, p.5
3. Tadhkirat al-Qubur, which is an account of the notables of Isfahan, says: Aqa Shaykh ‘Ali Mudarris Yazdi taught sutuh-I fiqh and Arabic literature at the Sadr School of Isfahan and groomed a vast number of scholars. He lived a simple life of ascetic content and met his living expenses by researching and editing texts. He died in 1354 AH and was buried in one of the northern rooms of the Burujirdi Takiyah.
4. Probably he is Mirza Muhammad Baqir Tuysirkani (1293-1374 AH), about whom the Tadhkirat al-Qubur says: Son of Hajj Mirza ‘Abd al-Ghaffar. He studied under his father and Hajj Mirza Badi Darb-i Imami, Akhund Kashi and Aqa Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Durchihi. He was a jurisprudent and recluse. Scholars and friends would gather at his house for scientific debates. His works include Hashiyah Bar Sharai and Hashiyah Bar Lum ah
5. Hudur, special issue on Ayatullah Pasandidah. Also refer to Ganjinah-ye Danehmandan, vol. 2.
6. Rida Ustadi, Sharh-e Ahval-e Ayatullah al-’Uzma Araki, p. 143.
7. Appendix to Kitab al-Taharah of Ayatullah Araki.
8. Refer to Nur-e-‘Ilm magazine for a detailed account of this scholar.
9. For his biographical sketch refer to Aseman-e-Ma‘rifat by Ayatullah Hasan Hasanzadah Amuli.
10. Ayatullah Mirza Khalil Kamarehi who was his student, has provided a biographical account of his teacher in the introduction to Risalah-yi Hikmiyyah.
11. A detailed account of his life is found in Sayyid Muslih al-Din Mahdawis Tarikh-i llmi -wa Ijtimai Isfahan, vol. 2.
12. According Ganjinah-ye Daneshmandan, vol. 5, p. 42: The late Imam benefited from the ethical discourses of Ayatullah Hajj Mirza Jawad Aqa Maliki Tabrizi. This is further confirmed by Aqa Suha‘s Tarlkh-i Hukama, p. 68, which says: Aqa Sayyid Ruhullah al-Musawi al-Khumayni, student of Aqa Mirza Jawad Aqa Maliki in the field of ethics.
On the basis of this documented evidence, the writer of the article considers the late Ayatullah Maliki among the teachers of Imam Khumayni. However, one of the learned scholars after reading my article has disputed my finding, and says that the late Imam has not mentioned the name of Ayatullah Maliki in his reminisces of his teachers.
13. Rida Ustadi: My earlier article titled The Teachers of Imam Khumayni was published several times. The present article is a revised and complete edition of the previous one.